Thursday, 22 December 2011

40 Things You Should Know – The Science (part 10)

Point 15

Substrate oxidation differences between high- and low-intensity exercise are compensated over 24 hours in obese men.



Exercise has been proposed as a tool for the prevention of obesity. Apart from an effect on energy expenditure, in particular low-intensity (LI) exercise might also influence substrate metabolism in favour of fat oxidation. It is however unclear what is the most beneficial exercise regime for obese people. We therefore studied the effect of either high-intensity (HI) or LI exercise on 24 h energy expenditure (24 h EE) and substrate metabolism.


Eight healthy obese male volunteers (age: 38+/-1 y, BMI: 31+/-1 kg/m(2), W(max): 235+/-16 W) stayed in the respiration chamber for two nights and the day in-between. In the chamber they cycled either at a HI (three times 30 min in a interval protocol (2.5 min 80/50% W(max))) or LI (three times 60 min continuously at 38% W(max)) protocol with an equicaloric energy expenditure. In the chamber subjects were fed in energy balance (37/48/15% of energy as fat/carbohydrate/protein).


The 24 h EE was not significantly different between protocols. In both protocols, sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) was elevated after the exercise (average+6.7%). The 24 h respiratory quotient (24 h RQ) was not different between protocols. During exercise, RQ was higher in the HI compared to the LI protocol (0.93 vs 0.91 resp., P<0.05), whereas in the postexercise period RQ tended to be lower in the HI compared to the LI protocol (P=0.06).


24 h EE is not differently affected by HI or LI exercise in obese men. Similarly, the differences in HI and LI exercise, RQ are compensated postexercise leading to similar substrate oxidation patterns over 24 h independently of the level of exercise intensity.

Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation.


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of exercise at different intensities on 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation. Sixteen adults (8 men and 8 women) were studied on three occasions [sedentary day (Con), a low-intensity exercise day (LI; 400 kcal at 40% of maximal oxygen consumption) and a high-intensity exercise day (HI; 400 kcal at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption)] by using whole room indirect calorimetry. Both 24-h EE and carbohydrate oxidation were significantly elevated on the exercise days (Con < LI = HI), but 24-h fat oxidation was not different across conditions. Muscle enzymatic profile was not consistently related to 24-h fat or carbohydrate oxidation. With further analysis, it was found that, compared with men, women sustained slightly higher rates of 24-h fat oxidation (mg x kg FFM(-1) x min(-1)) and had a muscle enzymatic profile favoring fat oxidation. It is concluded that exercise intensity has no effect on 24-h EE or nutrient oxidation.

Point 45

Digestibility of cooked and raw egg protein in humans as assessed by stable isotope techniques.


Egg proteins contribute substantially to the daily nitrogen allowances in Western countries and are generally considered to be highly digestible. However, information is lacking on the true ileal digestibility of either raw or cooked egg protein. The recent availability of stable isotope-labeled egg protein allowed determination of the true ileal digestibility of egg protein by means of noninvasive tracer techniques. Five ileostomy patients were studied, once after ingestion of a test meal consisting of 25 g of cooked 13C- and 15N-labeled egg protein, and once after ingestion of the same test meal in raw form. Ileal effluents and breath samples were collected at regular intervals after consumption of the test meal and analyzed for 15N- and 13C-content, respectively. The true ileal digestibility of cooked and raw egg protein amounted to 90.9 +/- 0.8 and 51.3 +/- 9.8%, respectively. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.92, P < 0.001) was found between the 13C-recovery in breath and the recovery of exogenous N in the ileal effluents. In summary, using the 15N-dilution technique we demonstrated that the assimilation of cooked egg protein is efficient, albeit incomplete, and that the true ileal digestibility of egg protein is significantly enhanced by heat-pretreatment. A simple 13C-breath test technique furthermore proved to be a suitable alternative for the evaluation of the true ileal digestibility of egg protein.

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